Key points to the new formation of a company in India in ‘SPICE+’

New company Regulations Under Form SPICe Plus for the company incorporation in India

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SPICe+ Simplification Company Formation process in India

Spice+ is a modern web-based form instead of the Spice form. MCA also introduced a new web-based form spice+ and extra authentication along with the form to make the company’s incorporation process simpler. The business will also apply for EPFO / ESI, GST numbers as well as this single window form. It is compulsory for all businesses in compliance with the Guidelines of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs on the issue of PAN, TAN, EPFO, ESIC, Qualified Tax (Maharashtra) and the opening of the bank account.

 Key Points to be recognized with respect to the company’s formation in India i.e ‘SPICE+’

  1. Both forms (Incorporation, AOA, MOA, AGILE-PRO) have to be filled out in a web-based facility and then copied, digitally signed and posted as before.
  2. “Check Form,” “Pre-Scrutiny” to be performed on a web-based database, so no modifications can be made to the downloaded files.
  3. “INC-9” (declaration by first subscriber) must always be submitted by a web-based facility only.
  4. “AGILE-PRO” is to be digitally signed only by a person who has signed the “Spice+” form and no other director will sign the same form.
  5. If you continue to apply for “Name Reservation” first, you should opt for 2 Proposed Names otherwise you might also proceed to the “Name with Incorporation” facility and then you can only propose One Name
  6. The GSTIN status applied through AGILE-PRO can be checked at the GST Portal from the MCA Forms SRN.
  7. Companies that enroll ESI and PF inside the SPICE+ package do not require compliance with the ESI and PF laws until the deadline for application is set.

Available features of “SPICe Plus Form” at MCA

Recently, the government has published the full significant features of the SPICe Plus form (SPICe+) in order to make clear the value of the form as well as the campaign for good visibility. SPICe Plus form (MCA Form SPICe+) is said to devote 10 services across 3 central government ministries and departments (Ministry of Labor & Department of Revenue in the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Corporate Affairs). The new SPICe form is said to save precious time and procedure for the management of the individuals concerned and has been introduced with all existing companies since 23 February.

Emergence to the web-based SPICe + MCA Filing Form

SPICe+ Online form is a post-login system and current registered users will need to sign in to their account using their credentials. New users must first build a login account before using the service.

Apart from being an improved variant of the current SPICe, the form is capable of fulfilling multiple requirements such as name reservation, inclusion, DIN distribution, compulsory issue of PAN, TAN, EPFO, ESIC, qualified tax (Maharashtra) and bank account opening. You can also buy the GSTIN through the SPICe+ form.

Now the Reserve Special Name of RUN is only significant if the corporation wishes to replace its existing name with a new one.

MCA SPICe INC 32 V / S SPICe Plus

SPICe INC 32 – Single Code Helps:

  • Name reservation

  • Incorporation of a new company
  • Applying for Director Identity Number (DIN) designation

Form SPICe+ (SPICe Plus) – A Single Application Helps in:

  1. Name reservation
  2. Incorporation of a new company
  3. Applying for DIN allotment]
  4. Profession Tax (Maharashtra)
  5. Bank Account Opening
  6. TAN
  7. EPFO
  8. ESIC
  9. GSTIN

Features of SPICe+ make Simplification New Company Formation process in India

  • SPICe+ would be an integrated Web Form.
  • SPICe+ would have two parts viz.: Part A-for Name reservation for new companies and Part B offering a bouquet of services viz.
    (i) Incorporation
    (ii) DIN allotment
    (iii) Mandatory issue of PAN
    (iv) Mandatory issue of TAN
    (v) Mandatory issue of EPFO registration
    (vi) Mandatory issue of ESIC registration
    (vii) Mandatory issue of Profession Tax registration(Maharashtra)
    (viii) Mandatory Opening of Bank Account for the Company and
    (ix) Allotment of GSTIN (if so applied for).
  • Readers may choose whether to submit Part-A for reserve of a name first and then submit Part B for incorporation & other services or file Parts A and B together in one go for the incorporation of a new company and the use of a range of services as defined above.
  • A modern and user-friendly front-office interface for client integration applications (SPICe+ and related forms as applicable) is being developed.
  • Applications for incorporation (Part B) after name reservation (Part A) can be submitted as a streamlined phase in the continuation of Section A of SPICe+. Stakeholders will not be required to enter the approved name SRN as the approved name will be prominently displayed on the Dashboard and a click on it will take the user to continue the application via a hyperlink that will be available on the SRN / application number in the new dashboard.
  • Resubmission of applications for business name reservation and/or registration shall now be done by means of the form number / Name applied for on the new dashboard.
  • From 15 February 2020 onwards, the RUN service will only refer to the ‘change of name’ of an established company. 8. The new web form will allow on-screen file and validation of real-time data for the transparent incorporation of corporations.
  • The approved name and related incorporation information as set out in Part A will be immediately pre-filled in all linked forms, including AGILE-PRO, eMoA, eAoA, URC1, INC-9 (as applicable)
  • In order to ensure ease of processing, SPICe+ will be divided into various parts.
  • Information once entered can be saved and modified.
  • All Check Form and Pre-Scrutiny Validations (except DSC Validation) must take place on the web page itself.
  • After the SPICe+ has been filled in with all the necessary information, the same will have to be translated to a PDF file, with only a click of the mouse button, to show the DSCs.
  • All digitally signed documents will then be submitted along with the related forms as part of the current procedure.
  • Changes/modifications to SPICe+ (even after creating pdf and affixing DSCs) can also be rendered by modifying the same web form code that has been saved, producing and uploading modified PDFs to DSCs.
  • DSC authentication and other validations must take place at Upload Stage.
  • Enrollment for EPFO and ESIC shall be compulsory for all new companies established as of 15 February 2020 and no EPFO & ESIC registry numbers shall be issued separately by the respective agencies.
  • register for professional tax is also compulsory for all startup companies incorporated in the State of Maharashtra as of 15 February 2020.
  • All startups incorporated through SPICe+ (we.e.f. 15 February 2020) would also be required to obey for the establishment of the bank account of the company through the secure website linked to AGILE-PRO.
  • The declaration of all subscribers and first directors in INC-9 shall be self-generated in PDF format and shall only be submitted in electronic form in all cases, except where:
    • The overall number of subscribers and/or directors is more than 20 and/or more than 20.
    • Any such subscriber and/or director shall have neither DIN nor PAN.

Note: New companies formed by SPICe+ and thus acquired EPFO / ESI number would only have to file legal returns if they exceed the thresholds set by the applicable Laws.

Thus, we can state that New company Laws regulation under the SPICe Plus form easy for the company to be registered in India. 8. Concluding The EODB steps taken by the Government over the last few years have substantially accelerated the process of business incorporation. Their aim of a smooth and simple process is gradually becoming a reality. That, in the past, was a tiring process requiring months of work and labor. However, by making the best possible use of technology, a company can now be incorporated in a couple of days, making millions of dreams a truth in an hour’s time.

On Rajput Jain & Associates :

Rajput Jain & Associates is an inspired and democratic organization owned by like-minded individuals. It helps a wide range of small, medium, and large enterprises to comply with all the requirements of the Indian Laws.

Get in touch for a consultation at info@carajput.com or call 9555555480.

How to incorporate the company

Image result for company incorporationSteps for incorporating the company:-

  • The first step of getting a company incorporated is obtaining the approval of name from Registrar of Companies. A company may adopt any name which is not prohibited under the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950.The government has launched a web service RUN (Reserve Unique Name) for reserving name of a proposed company. We can directly submit the application for reserving name online within few minutes (there is no requirement to download e-form like INC-1, and attaching DSC), has been launched for reserving name of new company or for change in name of existing company earlier there was INC-1 for reservation of name of new company or for change in name of existing company. Application form fee shall be Rs.1000/- per form for reservation of name by using RUN web-form.

                    APPROVED NAME IS VALID FOR A PERIOD OF:

20 days from the date of approval (in case name is being reserved for a new company) or

60 days from the date of approval (in case of change of name of an existing company)

  • The preparation of MOA is the next step in the incorporation of a company. It is the law of the company, which states its objects and scope and the company relation with outside world.
  • Other than MOA, the promoters will also prepare AOA of the company. It contains rules and regulations relating to the internal management of the company.

Following other documents are also prepared:

  • Taking consent from directors and filed it with ROC.
  • Promoters have to execute power of attorney in favor of one of them.
  • Form of DIN, PAN & TAN.
  • Form for first director.
  • Form for address of registered office.
  • At the time of registration, prescribed registration fees and filing fee for each document filed for registration are to be paid at the Registrar’s office.

Also we can incorporate company in India through the

 Simplified Performa for Incorporation Company Electronically (SPICE)

MCA will bring new specified procedures for incorporation of company under companies act, 2013. Ministry of corporate affairs introduces E- Form INC-32 by a notification under SPICE Scheme. SPICE means Simplified Performa for Incorporating Company Electronically.

The SPICE form will introduced to bring facility of preparing Electronic MOA & Electronic AOA. This facility is introduced first time in Indian history for incorporation of company. Now there is no need to prepare manual MOA & AOA.

Before of this SPICE form if any person want to incorporate any company then he has to apply by filing different form for DIN, PAN, TAN, approval of name availability, registered office address, first director form etc.

Now it is mandatory to file E-Form INC-32 for incorporation of company in India. If the company is Producer Company and having more than 7 subscribers then E-Form INC-7 have to be filled and if subscribers of Producer Company are less than 7 then it has to filed E-Form INC-32 for incorporation.

According to the notification given by MCA, companies who are incorporated by filing E-Form INC-32 then that company cannot incorporate by filing E-Form INC-7 on or after 29th December, 2016. So, it is compulsory to file E-Form INC-32 for incorporation of company from the date 29 December, 2016.

SPICE Form (INC-32) has following features:-

  • Maximum number of allowed subscribers is seven. If subscribers are more than seven then E-Form INC-7 is filled and normal incorporation procedures of E-Form INC-7 are applied.
  • Maximum twenty directors are allowed.
  • Maximum three directors are allowed for filing application for Director Identification Number.
  • In this form name of company can also be applied.
  • DSC of subscriber is affixed on the INC-33 (E-MOA) For automatically generating date of sign by the form.
  • Applying for PAN / TAN will be compulsory for all the company who are incorporated through SPICE form.

Following difficulties are faced while filing SPICE Form (INC-32):-

  • For foreign subscribers it is difficult to incorporate the company without violating the rule 13 of the companies’ rules, 2014.
  • If company name is approved already in E-Form INC-1 then whether company can apply for incorporation in E-Form INC-32 or not
  • If both the person doesn’t have DIN No. whether they can apply for the incorporation of Company. Or one person mandatorily requires having DIN for filing of this form
  • For incorporation of producer company this form is filled or not.
  • If any company want to incorporate through INC-7 then how the company can do so.

Following documents are attached with the SPICE E-Form (INC-32):-

  1. E-MOA & E-AOA required to be attached.
  2. INC-9 Affidavit and declaration by first subscriber and director (on duly authorized Stamp Papers).
  3. DIR-2 declaration from first Directors along with Copy of Proof of Identity and residential address.
  4. NOC from the owner of the property.
  5. Proof of Office address (Conveyance/ Lease deed/ Rent Agreement etc. along with rent receipts);
  6. Copy of the utility bills (not older than two months)
  7. Declaration from the director non acceptance of Deposit. (On duly authorized Stamp Papers).
  8. In case of subscribers/ Director does not have a DIN, it is compulsory to attach Proof of identity and residential address of the subscribers
  9. E- 49A and E-49B will be filed through MCA website (filed form will be generate by the SRN of INC-33 E-MOA).

Incorporate a new company in a progressive country like India and take following benefits:-

  • In country like India, you have complete ownership of your company.
  • You can also take exemption from taxes in startups companies if eligible.
  • For the foreign person one special benefit is he does not have to require physically present in India he can operate from outside the India except one time present at the time of incorporation.
  • For incorporation you have to open a bank account and you have benefit that ownership of bank account is your own company name.
  • In country like India, Privacy of your all operations is maintained.
  • Annual fees is nominal in India.
  • You have permission to be traded in foreign or can do international business easily.
  • You can purchase properties in India in your company name.
  • Even you can easily set up a operation of an international company.
  • For foreign people one more benefit is they can easily get the business visa for India residency.

You can get above benefits by incorporating your entity in a progressive country like India and also you can get extra benefits in setting up your corporate bank account easily through Rajput Jain& associates.

How Rajput Jain & associates offers services for helping you in formation of company in India it is a one step solution for you:-

  • Get the most comprehensive and perfect Company Formation advice.
  • Helping in set-up your branch company out from your Global entity structure easily.
  • Helping in getting your Commercial License and acquire your India residence visa
  • You can take advantage of Accounting & GST / Tax Consultancy & Advisory Services
  • Easily get Tax Agency Appointment
  • You can get easily perfect Financial Auditor for your existing company
  • You can get all the services before and after the incorporation of company.

Disclaimer:

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances; Before making any decisions do consult your Professional / tax advisor. For misrepresentation or interpretation of act or rules Author does not take any responsibility. Neither the author nor the firm accepts any liability for the loss or damage of any kind arising out of information in this document or for any action taken in reliance there on. The author is a Chartered Accountant and the Chief Gardener & Founder Director of Rajput Jain & Associates , a leading Tax & Investment Planning Advisory Service Provider. His blog can be found at https://carajput.com/blog/For any query you can write to info@carajput.com. Hope the information will assist you in your Professional endeavors. For query or help, contact:   info@carajput.com or call at 09811322785/4 9555 5555 480)

CHECKLIST FOR INCORPORATING WHOLLY OWNED SUBSIDIARY COMPANY

CHECKLIST FOR INCORPORATING WHOLLY OWNED SUBSIDIARY COMPANY

Formation of A Wholly Owned Subsidiary Company In IndiaUntitled55Company Registration in India

This Article is provides information about the stages and documents required for incorporation of a private limited company in India which is subsidiary of a foreign company in India. The procedure for registering a subsidiary company in India is very simple and will take around a maximum of 15 days to complete. The followings are the detailed requirements, procedure and system for subsidiary formation in India

A private company is defined under Section 3(1)(iii) of the CA Act  as a company which

  • Has a minimum paid up share capital of INR 100,000 or a higher paid-up capital as may be prescribed by its articles of association
  • Restricts the right to transfer shares by its articles of association.
  • Prohibits any invitation to the public to subscribe for any shares in, or debentures of, the company.
  • Prohibits any acceptance of deposits from persons other than members, directors or their relatives.
  • Can be formed with a minimum of two members and two directors.
  • Limits the number of its members (shareholders) to fifty not including (i) persons who are in the employment of the Company and (ii) persons who, having been formerly in the employment of the Company, were members of the Company while in that employment and have continued to be members after the employment ceased.

Therefore, minimum capital required for incorporation of a private company is Indian Rupees 1(one) lakh and there should be at least one two members (shareholders) and two directors)

Incorporation of a private limited company in India broadly involves the following stages:

STAGE – I

Obtaining Directors Identification Number (Din) & Digital Signatures

Directors Identification Number (DIN)

Prior to incorporation of a company, the proposed directors of the company are required to obtain Directors Identification Number (“DIN”) from the Ministry of Company Affairs by making an online DIN application in Form DIN 1. Form DIN 1 is approved by the DIN Cell of the Ministry of Corporate affairs.

The said Form DIN 1 is to be filed with the scan copies of the applicant’s photograph, identity proof, a valid residential proof and a verification/ declaration in the prescribed format to be given by the applicant (who is applying for the DIN). Upon online submission of the Form DIN 1 and online payment of the fee, a permanent DIN to the director will be allotted immediately.

The following documents are required to make a DIN application for each of the proposed director(s):

(i) Identity proof

For identity proof, a copy of passport or copy of permanent account number card (PAN card) is required to be provided. Please note that in case of a foreign national only passport is acceptable as identity proof and in case of an Indian national copy of PAN card is must.

(ii)Residence proof

For residence proof, a copy of voter’s identity card or valid driving licence or latest bank statement duly certified by the respective bank or utility bill (not older than two months) is required to be provided.

(iii) One passport size color photograph in jpeg format. In addition one more photograph is required which should be separately pasted on a plane paper.

(iv) Verification/ Declaration in the prescribed format on a 10 Rupees stamp paper, duly notrized by a notary public.

All the aforementioned documents should be attested by a notary public in the country of residence of the applicant.

Digital Signature Certificate (“DSC”)

Any one of the proposed directors is required to obtain digital signature certificate (“DSC”) in India for online filing of e-Forms with the concerned Registrar of Companies (“ROC”). For obtaining DSC an application is made under the signatures of the director who intends to obtain DSC along with the copy of his identity proof and a copy of his residence proof.  The following documents are required to make a DSC application for each of the proposed director(s):

(i) Identity proof

For identity proof, a copy of passport or copy of permanent account number card (PAN card) is required to be provided. Please note that in case of a foreign national only passport is acceptable as identity proof and in case of an Indian national copy of PAN card is must.

(ii) Residence proof

For residence proof, a copy of voter’s identity card or valid driving license or latest bank statement duly certified by the respective bank or utility bill (not older than two months) is required to be provided.

(iii) One passport size color photograph. Please note that the photograph should be pasted on the application form and cross signed by the director (applicant).

(iv) DSC application form duly signed by the director (applicant)

The identity and residence proof of the applicant as aforesaid should be attested by a notary public in the country of residence of the applicant.

STAGE – III

Application for Name Approval of the Proposed Company With The ROC

After obtaining the DIN and DSC as aforesaid, an online application for availability of the proposed name (in the prescribed Form 1A), along with six proposed names in order of preference (may be less than six), each one indicating, as far as possible, the main objects (principal activities) of the company, shall be submitted to the ROC. The name of a private company should end with the words “Private Limited”.

If the proposed company is a subsidiary of body corporate incorporated outside India, Form 1A is required to be e-filed along with the following attachment at the website of Ministry of Company Affairs, India:

(a) Board Resolutions by the parent company (separately from each subscriber to the proposed entity) indicating its intention to incorporate a subsidiary in India and authorizing a director to issue specific power of attorney.

(b) Power of Attorney (s) (separately from each subscriber to the proposed entity) authorizing someone to represent the subscribers before the concerned ROC to liaise with  all concerned authorities and officials in the matter of incorporation.

(c)    No Objection Letter from the parent company (separately from each of such   entity whose name or part thereof will be used in the name of the proposed entity) for use of the name of the parent company or part thereof in the name of the proposed company.

(d) Charter Documents of the parent company i.e. Certificate of Incorporation of the  parent company.

Please note that all of the aforementioned documents should be notarized by a Notary Public in the country where the registered office of the entity (which has issued the said document), is situated and further Apostilled/ endorsed at the Indian Consulate in the country where the registered office of the entity (which has issued the said document) is situated.

(e) A brief writ-up on the main objects proposed to be carried out by the Company.

(f) Proof of ownership of the registered office of the company. In case the property is not taken on lease by the Company himself, a no objcetion certificate would be required

STAGE IV

Drafting And Stamping of Memorandum & Articles of Association (“MOA and AOA”)

MOA and AOA are to be drafted in compliance with the provisions of the Act. Adequate stamp duty would be required to be paid thereupon based on the authorised capital of the company. The stamp duty on MOA and AOA shall be paid along with the filing fee payable at the time of filing of incorporation related documents

STAGE V

INCORPORATION DOCUMENTS TO BE FILED WITH THE ROC

After the name approval, the following forms have to be e-filed with the ROC after having been digitally signed by any of the proposed directors. The lists of documents are as follows:

(i)    Form 1 –   Declaration of compliance of all the requirements of the Act along with the memorandum of association of the company;

(ii)   Form 18 – Situation of the registered office of the Company; and

(iii) Form 32 – Particulars of Directors of the Company along with the consent of directors.

All the aforesaid incorporation documents (scanned copies of the executed version) have to be submitted with the ROC as attachments to the E form 1 alongwith:

(i) The original copies of MOA and AOA with the subscriber pages duly executed by or on behalf of the subscribers and witnessed.

(ii) Power of Attorneys from the subscribers to the MOA and AOA appointing representatives to incorporate the company and to make corrections in the MOA and AOA. The said powers of attorneys are required to be notarized and attested by Indian embassy abroad.

The ROC then scrutinizes the above-mentioned documents and if necessary, directs the authorized person to make necessary corrections therein. The ROC after being satisfied that all the documents are complete, issues the certificate of incorporation of the Company, which is the conclusive proof of registration of the company in India.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances; Hope the information will assist you in your Professional endeavors. For query or help, contact: info@carajput.com or call at 9555555480

NAMING AND REGISTERING A BUSINESSIN FORM OF COMPANY UNDER COMPANIES ACT 2013

NAMING AND REGISTERING A BUSINESS IN FORM OF COMPANY

1COMPANIES ACT 2013

In India, incorporation of a company is governed by the Companies Act 2013. It is the most important piece of legislation that empowers the Central Government to regulate the formation, financing, functioning and winding up of companies. It applies to whole of India and to all types of companies, whether registered under this Act or an earlier Act. But it does not apply to universities, co-operative societies, unincorporated trading, scientific and other societies.

The Act is administered by the Central Government through the Ministry of Corporate Affairs and the Offices of Registrar of Companies, Official Liquidators , Public Trustee, Company Law Board, Director of Inspection, etc. The Registrar of Companies (ROC) controls the task of incorporation of new companies and the administration of running companies.

The Official Liquidators  who are attached to the various High Courts functioning in the country are also under the overall administrative control of the Ministry. The set-up at the Headquarters includes the Company Law Board, a quasi-judicial body, having the principal Bench at New Delhi, an additional principal bench for Southern Region at Chennai and four Regional Benches located at New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. The organization at the Headquarters also includes two Directors of Inspection and Investigation with a complement of staff, an Economic Adviser for Research and Statistics and other Officials providing expertise on legal, accounting, economic and statistical matters.

The four Regional Directors, who are in charge of the respective regions, comprising a number of States and Union Territories, interalia, supervise the working of the Offices of Registrars of Companies and the Official Liquidators working in their regions. They also maintain liaison with the respective State Governments and the Central Government in matters relating to the administration of the Companies Act, 1956.

Registrar of Companies (ROCs) appointed under Section 609 of the Companies Act, covering various States and Union Territories, are vested with the primary duty of registering companies floated in the respective States and the Union Territories and ensuring that such companies comply with the statutory requirements under the Act. Their offices function as registry of records relating to the companies registered with them.

For registration and incorporation of a company, an application has to be filed with Registrar of companies. Application for registration of a company accompanied by the selected names, Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association and other necessary documents is to be filed with the Registrar of companies of the State in which the company is proposed to be incorporated.

Under the Companies Act, an entrepreneur can form two types of companies, namely a private company or a public company.

A Private Company is one, the articles whereof contains the following restrictions:-

  • Restricts the minimum paid up share capital to such an amount as may be prescribed but which shall not be less than rupees one lakh;
  • Restricts the rights of members to transfer its shares, if any;
  • Limits the number of its members to fifty excluding the past or present employees of the company who are members of the company;
  • Prohibits any invitation to the public to subscribe for any shares or debentures of the company;
  • Does not invite or accept any deposits from persons other than its members, directors or their relatives
  • Also, the minimum number of members in a private company is two and such a company must have the words ‘Pvt Ltd’ as the last part of its name.

A Public Company, as defined in the Companies Act, has the following features:-

  • Its shares are freely transferable;
  • There is no ceiling on its membership;
  • It can invite general public to subscribe to its shares;
  • It has a minimum paid up capital of Rs. 5 lakhs or such higher paid up capital as may be prescribed;
  • It is a private company which is a subsidiary of a public company.
  • Also, the minimum number of members in a public company is seven and such a company must have the word ‘Ltd’ as last part of its name.
  • Procedures for Registration of a Business
  • List of offices of Registrar of Companies
  • Registration Forms
  • FAQs by Ministry of Corporate Affairs
  • Guidelines by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs
  • Instruction kit for filling eForms

WHAT IS FINANCIAL REPORTING?

Financial reporting includes the following:

  • the external financial statements (balance sheet, income statement, statement of cash flows, and statement of  stockholders’ equity)
  • The notes to the financial statements
  • Quarterly and annual reports to stockholders
  • Press releases and conference calls regarding quarterly earnings and related information
  • Financial information posted on a corporation’s website
  • Financial reports to governmental agencies including quarterly and annual reports to the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Fema) ROC/ Income Tax / Banks / Investors / Money Lenders.
  • Prospectuses pertaining to the issuance of common stockand other securities

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances; Hope the information will assist you in your Professional endeavors. For query or help, contact: info@carajput.com or call at 9555555480